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cbs news iss background

by:Sibai      2020-03-01
The International Space Station background the International Space Station is the most complex engineering project ever tried in space. so far, it costs about $150 billion and is one of the most expensive engineering projects.
The first element to become an international space station is NASA-owned, Russian-
The built-in Zarya propulsion and storage module, also known as the functional warehouse (FGB ).
It was launched in November.
1998, launched by a Proton rocket.
Two weeks later, a space shuttle put the first NASA component into orbit, connecting the nodes in a unified way, and the two \"mate\" to form the core of the space station.
The International Space Station, filmed from above and behind the lab building.
A European Space Agency ATV cargo ship docked at the tail port of the Zvezda command module at the bottom of the frame and a gold-
You can see the color Japanese HTV cargo ship moored in the upper port of the harmonious cabin in front.
The white panel near the center of the solar truss of the power station is the ammonia coolant radiator, and the same is true for the four panels at the bottom of each set of solar arrays.
NASA modified the assembly sequence after the 2003 Columbia disaster, and the Bush administration later decided to retire the space shuttle ten years ago. The U. S.
After the last shuttle flight in July 2011, the portion of the outpost was announced to be completed.
CBS News polls show a massive blackout in controversial police videos. Hong Kong protesters understand the engineering challenges faced by space station operators, which will help 924,000-
It runs along the Earth\'s 260-mile orbit and travels through space at 5 miles --
Football field-
When the temperature moves from the sun to the shadow and returns again, the temperature fluctuations per second and continuously are 500 degrees Fahrenheit.
The long axis of the laboratory complex is usually facing the driving direction, usually sticking out like a train, and the pressurized module is connected back and forth like a passenger car.
At the front end of the complex ---
Locomotive analogy on the train--the U. S.
Harmony module leads the trend with Columbus lab at the European Space Agency on the right
The left side is the Kibo lab in Japan. An Earth-
The port facing the Harmony module is the connection point for visiting the Japanese HTV cargo ship, SpaceX Dragon capsule and the supply ship of the Cygnus seat of orbital science.
All three men were moored with robot arms from the space station.
There are four American features of harmony. S. -
Provide sleep stations or berths for NASA-sponsored crew.
The harbor of harmony is connected to the United States. S.
The destination lab module, which is also connected to the central unified connection node. The U. S.
Quest airlock extends to the right and the transfer module extends to the left.
The tranquil front harbor has a cargo storage room and a set of four gyro for re-use
Locate the station and maintain its command position, or \"attitude\", placed in a short truss extending from the port at the top of Unity. The U. S.
Part of the space station, including ESA, Japan and the Canadian Space Agency, extends forward from unity.
The Russian segment starts at the post-Unity port connecting the Zarya module.
The Russian Rassvet module extends down from Zarya and is the docking port of the unmanned cargo ship and the manned Alliance spacecraft.
The Russian Zvezda command module is behind the \"train\" of the space station.
The swik docking module extends up from Zvezda, while the Pirs module, which acts as the docking port and gas gate, extends down.
Available for manned and unmanned vehicles.
Russia plans to replace the Pirs with a large laboratory module next year.
Later, they planned to attach more than one
Connect the docking module to the new lab and then extend the solar array assembly from the module to the right.
The International Space Station is a football field.
NASA, mounted at right angles on the long axis of the space station, is its main solar truss, a huge assembly that spans the length of a football field with key electrical components, the ammonia coolant loop and the adjustable radiator panel.
The truss is anchored on the main shaft of the station through 10 huge pillars that connect the central S0 truss section to the top of the fate lab.
On the front of the truss, the mobile platform mounted on the track can bring the robot arm of Canada to a variety of workplaces.
At each end of the truss, four huge solar panels rotate like huge paddle wheels to track the sun.
On average, these arrays generate about 80 KW of electricity, enough to power 55 ordinary households.
The power of the solar array known as the \"primary power supply\" is routed to the components in the S0 truss, called the primary bus switching unit (MBSUs ).
Four MBSUs take that 160-
Volt primary power supply and route it to a transformer called DC-to-
A dc Converter Unit or DDCUs that reduces the voltage to a precisely controlled 124 v dc. This so-
Then, the power system called \"secondary power supply\" is used by a large number of power systems
A mechanical switch called a remote power controller.
The space station cooling system has two separate ammonia circuitsloop A and B -
This includes a large ammonia reservoir, a pump, a cold plate, and the pipes needed to pass the coolant through a large radiator to dissipate heat.
The entire laboratory can be operated or re-operated.
Orient by launching a Russian rocket propeller or by changing NASA\'s gyro speed inside the Z1 truss at the top of the Unity module.
The rocket propeller is usually used for major maneuvers, while the gyro is mainly used for smaller attitude changes.
Unless space debris causes catastrophic failure or destructive effects, NASA should be able to keep the ISS running within 2020 seconds.
The current official target is 2024, but NASA executives believe that with good luck,-
Stable funding-
The station can run safely until 2028, the 30 th anniversary of the launch of the first module.
But in extreme space environments, the power reduction of degraded solar cell arrays and other serious consequences over the decades will be slow but certainly causing losses and costs --
The benefit ratio will eventually tilt towards the redistribution of abandonment and fiery controlentry.
While the engineering and management challenges associated with keeping the space station running are daunting, the United StatesS.
Project manager Michael Suffredini says NASA should be viable as long as they have the resources to build spare parts, pay for the launch of the goods and provide transportation to the United StatesS.
Astronauts, either in the United StatesS.
Commercial spacecraft or Russian Soyuz spacecraft
\"We have a space station that is modular and designed to be serviced,\" Suffredini told CBS News . \".
\"So, as long as you have something extra to break, you can continue as long as your structure keeps you going. Within reason.
\"It turns out that most of its structure was originally designed for 30 years.
So all these profits make it relatively easy for us to reach 2020.
2028 will be more challenging. . . .
We may have to sharpen our pencils by 2028.
\"NASA\'s space station general contractor, Boeing, completed detailed engineering analysis in 2013 to verify the U. S.
Part of the complex can operate safely after ten years.
International space station components.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration of Russiabuilt NASA-
The Zarya cabin on the left is the first component of the ISS to reach orbit.
The second is the Unity connection node, right.
The two were linked during 1998 shuttle flights. (Credit: NASA)
\"When we get to 2028, the solar array is going to get stuck and I may have some radiator lines isolated,\" said Suffredini . \".
\"2028 may be possible, but it may also be very challenging as you are talking about the cost of replacing big things that can be prohibitive.
\"All of our analysis shows that we think we can reach 2028, and that is the way we go forward.
When we start over 2028, if that makes sense, things don\'t fail at a rate we can hardly keep up with, and the country thinks it\'s right to do so, and then we can consider going beyond that.
\"But 2028 is where we draw lines today based on the original design of the structure.
\"After Russia annexed Crimea, space station politics followed by the United StatesS.
Sanctions and the escalating Cold War
The Times say that the cooperation of the super powers in the high-end areas continues to increase, but the political foundation of the International Space Station project has emerged.
The space station was initially funded by 2015, but the Obama administration agreed to support the operation of the station by 2020. -now 2024 --
As part of a comprehensive revision of the United StatesS.
Cancel the space policy of the Bush administration\'s constellation satellite program.
NASA was told to develop a new type of heavy rocket for deep space exploration using Constellation plan Orion manned spacecraft.
The agency was also told to oversee the development of commercial manned spacecraft in order to transport crew members to and from the space station. On Sept.
NASA announced that Boeing and SpaceX will share $2014 for $6.
8 billion in the contract for the construction of commercial space taxis, astronauts will be transported to and from the space station (see next story).
The first operational flight is expected in 2017.
Until then, NASA will continue to rely on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft for crew rotation.
In the latest contract extension as of 2018, the cost per seat exceeded $80 million.
The arrangement is profitable for Russians and vital for NASA.
But after the crisis in Ukraine, the health of the superpower partnership has been questioned.
Last year, Dmitry Rogozin, Russia\'s deputy prime minister for space and defense, threatened to re-
In addition to the previously agreed target for 2020, I think it will continue to be involved in the space station project.
Rogozin is in the United States. S.
The sanctions list and makes no secret of his contempt for the Obama administration\'s response to what he sees as legitimate action in Ukraine.
In an angry Twitter post, Rogozin ironically hinted that NASA would consider using a trampoline to launch astronauts into the space station, saying that Russia needs to carry out detailed costs-
Benefit analysis to determine if more than 2020 of the business is reasonable.
But Russia eventually abandoned its harsh rhetoric and agreed earlier this year to operate the station by 2024.
But after that, they said, they would abandon the project and assemble their own space station, partly built with modules that would initially be connected to the International Space Station next year.
The Russian-built NASA-
The Zarya cabin on the left is the first component of the ISS to reach orbit.
The second is the Unity connection node, right.
The two were linked during 1998 shuttle flights.
NASA, in the short term, in view of the controversial political environment, some wonder if NASA\'s reliance on the basic transport of Russians to and from the space station would put the agency\'s former Cold War rivals ahead, raised the question of whether Russia could refuse to launch a NASA astronaut at some point, in fact, take over the operation of the laboratory.
In addition to the only manned spacecraft capable of reaching the laboratory complex, Russia provides rocket engines and fuel to regularly raise the height of the space station ---
This is a requirement due to the influence of atmospheric resistance-
Change the trajectory of the laboratory to avoid orbital debris.
But NASA provides four control torque gyro (CMGs) that allows Houston\'s flight controllers to adjust the direction of the space station without using rocket fuel.
In addition, the Russian part of the space station relies on the power generated by NASA\'s solar array.
Solar panels from NASA
Russia-
Due to interference with other station components, the built Zarya module was partially recovered.
The two smaller arrays on the Zvezda command module provide the only Russian power generation.
\"You burn so many props if we don\'t have CMGs (propellant)
\"You have an attitude of not being able to support the vehicle,\" Suffredini said . \". \"There\'d be (uncrewed)Progress (supply ships)
Launch once a month to keep up with all the gas you need.
This may be an exaggeration, but you certainly can\'t do it with the props we flew up today.
\"On average, the four advances in flying each year have quite high prop loads.
So we help each other in this regard.
We can\'t restart and burn step by step, and they can\'t afford all the props to do attitude control.
\"As for power, it seems doubtful whether Russians can operate the power station on the electricity generated by the Zvezda array.
\"There is some debate about whether they can do the work on their own, but certainly in our configuration today,\" Suffredini said . \".
\"We provide them with strength, and we will provide more strength as they grow.
They have been talking about flying solar platforms (of their own).
Before that, they will get strength from us.
\"With CMGs,\" we offer them high
The rate of communication they don\'t have and the constant communication they don\'t have.
They can only get communication through their ground site.
This is what we offer them.
Of course, they provided the notorious passage through the Union to the International Space Station.
This is a big part of what they offer.
\"In any case, NASA and its partners face funding challenges, and NASA and Roscosmos now agree to continue operating the space station, the European Space Agency, by 2024, the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency and the Canadian Space Agency are also expected to remain on board, although funding remains a major issue.
Politics aside, it\'s not clear how NASA will pay for all the projects on its plate. -
The development of space stations, commercial manned ferries and Orion space capsule, as well as a huge booster rocket known as the Space Launch System (SLS), which NASA hopes to use for space exploration.
In an era of partisan disputes in Washington and a shrinking federal deficit, American political support and the same cash support remain --
International Partnership tensions may be the most challenging obstacle for space station projects.
A Japanese HTV freighter is wrapped in robot arms from the International Space Station.
HTV is one of four cargo ships serving the space station.
Russia offers progressive cargo ships, while two of the United StatesS.
SpaceX and Orbital Sciences provide Dragon and Swan supply ships respectively.
According to current expectations, NASA \"they can\'t get there from here, and I think a lot of people have pointed out that,\" said Marcia Smith, editor of Space Policy Online.
But that doesn\'t stop Congress from continuing to ask NASA to do the impossible.
John lugston, a well-known space analyst and space historian, said the question was \"a bit like a smoker\'s cough ---
No one is willing to pay attention to it.
\"There\'s obviously not enough money for a long time.
Semester outlook should be stable (deep space)
Explore the program and continue to utilize and operate the space station at a level of $3 billion per year until 2028 or any date when the hardware is qualified.
Russian mission control center near Moscow.
Make the long
He said Japan and the European Space Agency were \"not enthusiastic about spending money on space station 2020.
\"So it\'s not clear now if there\'s a decision to go beyond (low-Earth orbit)
\"Will there be early partners in the United States,\" logerston said . \".
\"Of course, it is necessary to clarify the Global Intention to the Earth --
Track government-
Sponsorship Event post 2020
As far as I know, this is a problem that has not been solved very directly anywhere.
\"But for Suffredini, the answer to this question is very clear, if not widely understood.
For Suffredini, the value of the space station as a research laboratory and a technical test bed far exceeds its relatively small impact on the federal budget.
\"People simply don\'t appreciate what the radio gives back,\" he said in an earlier interview . \".
\"I \'ve been telling my people that everything else you\'re talking about is bland.
This is about helping individuals.
We need to talk more about what research we have learned so far, what the commitment to the future is, and what has been applied directly.
\"Suffredini said that with the obvious value of scientific research on the space station, the extension of action will be conducive to national security by promoting sustained international cooperation;
Generate data needed to keep astronauts healthy for a long time
Tasks other than low durationEarth orbit;
And help private enterprises to establishhold in space.
\"As a country, the only clear direction we get from Congress and the government is (of a long-
Term objective in space)
\"We want to go to Mars,\" he said . \"
\"What did our human research on the international space station find, and it took us more than 2020 of the time to get all the information we thought was necessary, to ensure that we understand how to mitigate the harmful effects of weightlessness and radiation on the human body.
\"The operation of more than 2020 kilometers of stations to encourage private --
Low-sector developmentEarth orbit.
\"We are reducing costs and we will allow the industry to reduce costs --
Earth orbit and find out what is beneficial and what is not necessarily beneficial, \"said Suffredini.
\"We\'re just in the early stages of sorting out, and to figure out what\'s really useful, we need to be well over £ 2020.
\"Americans are not needed on the space station.
Commercial manned spacecraft-
Suffredini said that in the long run, it would be cheaper to simply pay Russia for an alliance ferry flight ---
But the space station provides a clear destination for commercial ships and a customer in need. -NASA --
In the initial development.
\"As people have said, bold, there is really no industry big enough for customers who are willing to pay the price to enter low prices.
There is no earth orbit for the International Space Station . \"
\"Just not there.
The longer it takes us to really get a business team (vehicles)
The less dynamic the industry is.
\"This is another reason we need to keep the ISS, and we need to have time for these people to build spaceships (and)
Operating spacecraft (long enough)
Be safe enough
This is consistent with figuring out the commercial use of low-Earth orbit (are)
These two things will help the ability of the business team.
\"In Suffredini\'s view, one of the most important reasons to keep the space station running for as long as possible is national security.
The space station plan requires close cooperation between NASA and Russia and Japan and Canada, Member States of the European Space Agency. Russia is NASA\'s former Cold War rival.
Shared technical expertise, well-tuned communications and joint management technologies established during the project life cycle are critical for future manned Mars flights, which most observers believe will exceed the capabilities of any country.
Russian mission control center near Moscow
S. space agency will operate the space station by at least 2024 kilometers, which will continue to build US space leadership, Suffredini said.
\"I think the part that people miss most is what it means to be a leader in human space for this country,\" said Suffredini . \".
\"It\'s not just because we\'re leading a very big effort, it\'s because the leadership in space is accompanied by that respect.
Building a Partnership in such a major effort will bring national security, and when you compare us with defense costs, it will also bring relative trouble.
\"As NASA and its partners enter space, this partnership will certainly develop . \"
As it develops, so does our security.
This is the most basic.
This is an important reason to maintain this effort.
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